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Bathroom fixtures and fittings

Bathroom fixtures and fittings refer to the core components used in a bathroom. The main fixtures include:

  • Toilets – used for waste disposal
  • Basins or sinks – used for hand washing
  • Bidets – used for feminine hygiene

Additional common fixtures are:

BathsSoaking and bathing

Other important fittings that support the fixtures include:

  • Piping and drains
  • Faucets
  • Whb fittings like mirror cabinets

Together, these fixtures and fittings make up the functional elements of a bathroom. Proper installation is important to ensure efficient functioning and use of the facilities.


The toilet is one of the most important fixtures in any bathroom. There are several different types of toilets with varying designs and features:

  • Wall-hung toilets are mounted on the wall above the floor. They provide a more space-saving design and ease of cleaning underneath. However, they require wall strengthening for the extra load.
  • Back-to-wall toilets are mounted on the floor but with the rear of the pan resting against the wall. They provide slightly more space than regular floor-mounted toilets.
  • Floor-mounted toilets sit directly on the bathroom floor. They are the most commonly installed type due to their simplicity, but they take up more floor space.
  • Flushometer toilets are seen more in commercial restrooms. They use an overhead-mounted device to deliver a powerful flush with every push of a lever or button.
  • Dual-flush toilets have options for full or half flushes depending on the waste deposited. They are more water efficient.

Toilet flushing systems also vary in design:

Flush TypeDescription
Gravity flushUses falling water in the tank to flush waste
Pressure-assisted flushAdds a pressure vessel to gravity flush for stronger flush
Dual-flush systemProvides options for full or half flushes as mentioned above

Other toilet fixtures to consider include:

  • Toilet seats made of different materials like plastic, wood or cushioned seats
  • Toilet roll holders mounted beside or behind the toilet
  • Bidets for hygienic cleansing connected to toilets in some regions

Proper selection of toilets based on space, water efficiency, and regulations is important for effective bathroom design. Regular cleaning keeps these important fixtures serviceable for waste disposal needs.


The sink or basin is another essential fixture that allows users to wash their hands after using the toilet or complete other tasks in the bathroom. There are different types of sinks suitable for bathrooms:

  • Washbasins or whb are the most common type mounted over a vanity counter or built-in cabinet. They provide a practical surface area for hygienic tasks.
  • Pedestal sinks feature a washbasin bowl mounted on a tall column or cylindrical leg for a decorative look. They require more floor area.
  • Vessel sinks have a bowl shape mounted atop a cabinet, shelf or wall bracket rather than being built-in. They add a stylish element.
  • Undermount sinks are mounted underneath the countertop for a sleek appearance with no visible rims or edges.
  • Wall-mounted sinks are ideal for small powder rooms where floor space is limited.

Sinks also vary in shape from round to oval to rectangular options. Homeowners can select from materials like ceramic, steel, copper or stone based on budget and preferences.

Some key bathroom sink fittings include faucets, pop-up drains and overflow drains for cleaning purposes. Faucet types are widespread for handles, spouts, and temperature control.

Shared or individual sinks can serve different needs based on the number of users. Proper installation is critical for fittings to function well and prevent leakage over time. Regular cleaning and maintenance keep these fixtures hygienic.

Installing high-quality sinks suited to the available space optimizes handwashing and grooming activities in any bathroom. Their selection completes essential bathing facilities along with toiletsshowers and bathtubs.


A bathroom shower allows users to bathe quickly and efficiently. Common types of showers include:

  • Standard shower stalls featuring three walls and a curved shower rod or door accessed from one open side. They are compact and inexpensive.
  • Walk-in showers with no enclosure provide a spacious bathing area without barriers. They require waterproofing of the entire floor space.
  • Curtained or glass-enclosed showers provide privacy with see-through sliding or hinged doors instead of an overhead curtain. These tend to be more high-end options.

Showers can be mounted on the:

  • Wall above a bathtub in combination fixtures
  • Floor of a wet room type bathroom design
  • Ceiling in accommodations with limited floor space

Depending on your budget, homeowners can choose from different finishes like stone, ceramic tiles, fiberglass, or acrylic panels for shower walls. Heated flooring and panels provide comfort.

Key fittings include the water control faucet, multiple showerheads in higher-end designs, soaps, and caddies integrated into walls. Popular faucet types are lever handles, push buttons, or shower mixers.

Showers can be equipped with additional features such as adjustable height shower rods, body sprays, built-in seating, and storage niches based on user needs. Choosing the right design based on space optimizes bathing convenience.


A bathroom bathtub provides a soothing environment for soaking and relaxing bathing needs. Common tub varieties include:

  • Standard bathtubs are seated inside a bathroom and enclosed by walls on three to four sides.
  • Freestanding bathtubs or slipper tubs are elevated on feet rather than mounted against walls for a finished look.
  • Clawfoot tubs are iconic for their claw-like feet lifting the tub above the ground to mimic vintage styles.
  • Corner bathtubs nestled into a 90-degree corner to maximize small space.
  • Walk-in tubs or roll-in showers with easy access and grab bars for assisted bathing needs.

Materials range from affordable acrylic to luxurious options like copper, natural stone, and porcelain-enameled steel. Popular shapes are oval, rectangle, or round.

Heated tubs come with fittings like whirlpools or air jets below the surface for massage functions. Color panels around the rim allow changing tub colors for a spa-like effect.

Control panels house temperature regulation knobs, tap fixtures, and light switches. Flooring needs waterproof materials, and built-in showers allow bathing without stepping out.

Adding a bathtub and a separate shower provides two bathing options to suit varied moods and needs. Proper installation and routine cleaning keep shared or individual tubs hygienic.


While less common in private bathrooms, urinals are necessary fixtures in commercial and public restrooms for men. There are a few main types:

  • Wall-mounted urinals are fixed on the wall at adult height for standing use. They require less space than floor models.
  • Floor-mounted urinals usually include filling valves and integral tire flushing rims. More durable for heavy usage areas.
  • Flushometer urinals found in larger restrooms use an overhead flush tank that activates with each use.
  • Waterless urinals employ liquid or gel seals that solidify waste for odor-free emptying. An eco-friendly option.

Standard urinals feature hard, durable materials like vitreous china, stainless steel, or plastic for easy cleaning. Rimless models empty directly through the drain for greater hygiene.

Automated fixtures include sensor-activated flush valves that use minimal water per use. Partition screens provide privacy in open restrooms.

Proper installation is important to avoid leaks and staining. Regular cleaning and deodorizing keep urinal fittings odor-free. While personal use is discouraged, urinals are indispensable in serving many users efficiently.

Manual, sensor, or flushometer-equipped urinals complete men’s restroom facilities when added alongside toilets, sinks, and diverse fittings like towel dispensers and trash bins.


bidet is a fixture or type of bathroom fitting used for feminine hygiene and other anal cleansing purposes after using the toilet in some regions. There are a few common bidet variants:

  • Wall-mounted bidets are fixed on the wall between the toilet and sink or as an attachment beside the toilet for easy access.
  • Floor-mounted bidets afford more space for seated use but require more floor area.
  • Built-in toilet seats provide the bidet function through an advanced toilet seat with an integrated nozzle, water jets, and controls.

Materials include vitreous china, stainless steel, or plastics. Controls are integrated or mounted nearby for water temperature, pressure and positioning of the spray.

Electric bidets offer additional features like heated seats, automatic lid openings and customized wash modes. Portable travel bidets also exist for on-the-go hygiene needs.

While traditionally separate fixtures, integrating the bidet function into the toilet seat creates a combined hygienic unit without using extra floor space.

Installing a high-quality bidet in the bathroom facility increases personal cleansing options alongside the standard fixtures of toilets, sinks, showers and tubs. Proper installation and maintenance ensures dependable use of this important fitting over the years.


Faucets or taps are a crucial bathroom fitting that controls and distributes water for the various fixtures like sinksshowers and bathtubs. There are several common types:

  • Single-handle faucets have one lever that controls temperature and flow with ease of use. Common in modern bathrooms.
  • Two-handle faucets employ separate hot and cold valves for more precise temperature regulation.
  • Pull-out or pull-down faucets have retractable spouts that can be extended over the sink or tub for flexible usage.
  • Electronic faucets utilize sensor detection or buttons instead of manual handles for a hands-free experience.
  • Shower faucets often contain multiple functions to switch between showerheads and handheld shower sprays.

Finishing options include various metal alloys like chrome, bronze or nickel for the handles and spout. Widespread or centered wall-mounted styles are common.

Cleaning faucets regularly removes mineral buildup that affects water flow over time. Replacing worn o-rings prevents leaks around the handles.

Choosing durable and efficient faucet fixtures suited to specific luxury or budget needs completes essential kitchen and bathroom water supply fittings along with other plumbing whbs and drain components.

Proper installation and maintenance of high-quality fittings ensures reliable water pressures for dependable usage of associated bathroom fixtures.


Other necessary fittings complete the functionality of core bathroom fixtures in any plumbing system. Some important examples include:

  • Piping transports water to all fixtures from its source location whether public water mains or private wells. Materials vary from copper, plastic or steel.
  • Drains remove waste from each fixture through solid piping to the main soil stack and vent piping. Common traps include P-traps and S-traps.
  • Traps in each drain line prevent sewer gases from entering living areas by forming a water barrier below each fixture connection.
  • Vents allow sewer gases to release safely while allowing pressure equalization in the drainage system to ensure fixtures drain properly.
  • Supply stops or shut-off valves installed under each fixture allow isolation of water supply for repairs or replacements.
  • Fixture mounts or flanges physically connect fixtures like sinks, toilets and tubs to the associated drain pipes, water lines and wall surfaces.

Complex systems may include:

  • Water heaters that supply hot water to temperature-controlled fixtures
  • Pumps for overhead hydro-mechanized fixtures and appliances
  • Pressure tanks for consistent water pressure

Proper installation of high-quality, durable fittings is crucial for sanitation and preventing plumbing issues. Periodic maintenance keeps all components in good condition and functioning optimally along with the primary bathroom fixtures.

Whb (wash hand basin)

The term whb refers to a wash basin fixture commonly installed in bathrooms. Whb is shorthand for “wash hand basin”.

Some key aspects of whbs:

  • Usually mounted into a bathroom countertop or vanity cabinet for use over the sink bowl
  • Rectangular or oval in shape to fit standard countertop sizes
  • Made from durable materials like ceramic, porcelain, stone or cast iron
  • Often include integrated backsplashes and overflow outlets
  • Connect to the water supply and drain piping during installation

Whbs provide an essential fixture for hand washing activities in bathrooms. They are generally considered the same as sinks or basins, just referred to as a whb in some regions.

Other common bathroom fittings typically included with a whb installation are:

  • Faucets with either single or dual-handle controls
  • Pop-up or strainer drains inside the sink bowl
  • Supply stops or shut-off valves below
  • Rigid or flexible soap dispensers nearby
  • Towel bars mounted on the wall or vanity cabinet

Properly installing quality whbs ensures years of dependable use. Like other fixtures, periodic cleaning keeps whbs hygienic along with any associated chrome fittings and hardware.

A well-positioned whb complements the core functions of a bathroom when added along with essentials like a toiletbathtub/shower and other accessories.